Slovenian electricity market
In Slovenia, electrical energy is a marketable commodity for industrial consumers since 2001 and for househodls since 2007. Tariff customers are provided with electricity, in accordance with the tariff system, by distribution companies in the framework of the public service of the supply of electricity to tariff customers.
Electricity users are able to negotiate the price of electricity with several distributors. Different rates of the electricity network fee are applied, depending on the voltage level, season (high-middle-low) and overall consumption of power.
Electricity is a commodity subject to the rules of supply and demand.
Consumer prices for electricity charged to end customer includes the following:
- the price for the electricity (set by the supplier),
- the network charge (set by the Energy Agency),
- the supplements to the network charge (set by the Republic of Slovenia),
- the excise duty,
- the value-added tax.
Electricity prices for reference industrial customers* in the EU, 2019 (in EUR/kWh; taxes excluded)
* Consumption Band Ic with annual consumption between 500 and 2000 MWh.
Despite the fact that Slovenia is completely dependent on the import of liquid and gas fuels, the country’s energy dependency was 50.4% or 4.8 percentage point below the EU-28 average and the reason for classifying Slovenia among the Member States with medium dependency.
In Slovenia, 15,453 GWh of electricity were generated in 2018, more than in the previous years. The structure of production is changing, the share of hydroelectric power plants is increasing, and, on the other hand, the share of thermal power plants decreased; the share of small producers is slowly growing. Domestic production sources covered 98% of consumption. The trial operation of Block 6 of the thermal power plant started in Šoštanj in 2014, while the thermal power plant in Trbovlje was shut down.
In 2018, 31% of electricity was produced in hydroelectric power plants and plants using other renewable sources (waste- and biogas-fired power plants are still rare), plants using fossil fuels contributed 32%, and the nuclear power plant Krško almost 35% of electricity.
Total primary energy production; Slovenia, 2018
In 2017, Slovenia met 22% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources. In the past ten years the share of renewables is slightly growing. However, the target of 25% of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption that Slovenia should achieve by 2020 will be difficult to meet.
The share of renewable sources increased the most in heating and cooling; by 14 percentage points from 2008 to 33% in 2017.
Wood is the most important renewable energy source in Slovenia. Most wood is used in households, especially for space and water heating. Wood is followed by hydro energy and other renewable energy sources (liquid biofuels, biogas, geothermal, solar and wind energy). These sources represent smaller shares, but their use is growing significantly. Electricity generation in solar power plants is stable in the last couple of years.
Slovenia has a 2,000 MWe Westinghouse nuclear reactor, the power plant's net electrical power is 696 MW. The NPP (Nuclear power plant) Krško is connected to the 400kV grid supplying power to consumer centres in Slovenia and Croatia. This pressurized water reactor was the first western nuclear power plant in eastern Europe. Construction started in 1975 and it was connected to the grid in 1981, entering commercial operation in 1983. In this time it has met basic expectations and objectives with regard to safety and stability of operation, competitiveness in comparison to other sources of electricity, and public acceptability. Today NPP belongs among the top twenty-five percent of operational nuclear power plants in the world in terms of nuclear safety and stability criteria standards.
NEK generates over five billion kWh of electrical energy per year, which represents approximately 40% of the total electricity produced in Slovenia.
NPP Krško is supervised and licensed by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), as well as by international expert missions organized by IAEA, EU, WANO, etc.
Research & Development
Slovenia has a 250 kW Triga research reactor operating since 1966 at the Josef Stefan Institute, which is a major research establishment. The reactor has been playing important role in developing nuclear technology and safety culture and operates as a nuclear training centre.